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Causes and Extent of Torture in Zambia and Conflict Management in the Electoral Process in Zambia

1.0. Introduction

Torture has been carried out and in some cases sanctioned by individuals, groups, and states throughout history from ancient times to the modern times. Forms of torture can vary greatly in duration from only a few minutes to several days or even longer. Reasons for torture can include punishment, revenge, political re - education , deterrence, interrogation or coercion of the victim or a third party, or simply the sadistic gratification of those carrying out or observing the torture.

The desire to torture a person is thought to be as a result of internal psychological pressure in the psyche of the torturer. The torturer may or may not intend to kill or injure the victim, but sometimes torture is deliberately fatal an d can precede a murder or serve as a cruel form of capital punishment . In other cases, the torturer may be indifferent to the condition of the victim.


Some forms of torture are designed to inflict psychological pain or leave as little physical injury or evidence as possible while achieving the same psychological devastation. Depending on the aim, even a form of torture that is intentionally fatal may be prolonged to all ow the victim to suffer as long as possible to the amusement of the torturer.

This presentation tries to identify some of the causes and extend of torture in Zambia . This paper also has a very short presentation of Conflict management in the Electoral Process in Zambia.

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About CARITAS Zambia

CARITAS Zambia is a Catholic Organization that is an integral structure of the Zambia Episcopal Conference (ZEC). The Episcopal Conference (or Bishops Conference) is a permanent grouping of Bishops of a given nation or territory that jointly exercises certain pastoral functions on behalf of the Christian faithful of their territory. This they do to promote the greater good which the Church offers humankind

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